Ocean Beach, one of the gems of the San Francisco landscape, faces significant challenges. For the past two years, SPUR has led an extensive interagency and public process to develop the Ocean Beach Master Plan, a comprehensive vision to address sea level rise, protect infrastructure, restore coastal ecosystems and improve public access.
The Ocean Beach Master Plan and Implementation Studies are made possible by the State Coastal Conservancy, the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission and the National Park Service.
Benjamin Grant, Public Realm and Urban Design Program Manager, email@example.com
Thanks to all who stopped by our open space design workshop at the United Irish Cultural Center last night (9/24)! For those who didn’t make it or who want to refresh your memory, you can view the presentation boards below. The boards present information on proposed open space designs at both the North Reach, across from Golden Gate Park between Lincoln Way and Balboa Street, and the South Reach, along the Great Highway from Sloat to Skyline Blvd.
Please take a look at the workshop boards (in the pdf posted below) and download the feedback form to submit your comments to us by October 15, 2014:
- via email at firstname.lastname@example.org, or
- via mail: Ben Grant, SPUR, 654 Mission St, San Francisco, CA 94105.
Once again thank you all for your interest and participation!
Please join us this Wednesday, September 17 from 6 – 8pm at the Park Chalet (1000 Great Highway) for updates on the Ocean Beach Master Plan, Sand Management and Seawall Repairs. In this town hall meeting, Supervisors Katy Tang and Eric Mar will discuss updates about the Ocean Beach Master Plan, and we will also hear from representatives of SF Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) on sand management plans for this Fall, from SPUR on Ocean Beach planning, and from the National Park Service (NPS) on upcoming repairs to the O’Shaughnessy Seawall and other issues.
Ocean Beach Town Hall
Wednesday, September 17, 6 - 8 pm
Park Chalet Restaurant
1000 Great Highway near John F. Kennedy Drive
Also, please mark your calendars for SPUR's public workshop on Wednesday, September 24th 6 - 8pm at the United Irish Cultural Center (2700 45th Ave) for a chance to provide feedback on our open space design for the Great Highway between Sloat and Skyline Blvds.
Open House attendees listen to presentations at SPUR's Ocean Beach Open House. Photo credit Shannon Fiala.
On Saturday May 10th, SPUR hosted a public update and open house about ongoing efforts to implement the Ocean Beach Master Plan. These include the Ocean Beach Coastal Management Framework, Ocean Beach Transportation Study, and Ocean Beach Open Space Design. Thanks very much to everyone who provided feedback on the Ocean Beach implementation projects. We were able to capture your valuable comments, ideas and remarks through the comment forms, boards and post-it notes at our Open House and also via email . For a complete compendium of public feedback, see photos from the open house here and check out the attachments below.
We received a lot of encouraging comments on the emerging ideas and solutions, and of course some concerns as well. The most popular comments were as follows:
Coastal Management Framework
• Support for the project direction, as summarized in this animated sequence
• Concern about costs of coastal protection measures
• Questions about the efficacy of the proposed structural measures
• Support for closing the Great Highway South of Sloat and providing a coastal trail
• Strong concern about providing additional parking on the Upper Great Highway,
particularly the likelihood of attracting more people and activity
• Mixed support and concern about narrowing the GH between Lincoln and Sloat
• Enthusiastic support for roundabouts, especially at Sloat and Skyline
• Support for reconfiguration of Sloat Boulevard to improve recreation, safety, and
• Desire for analysis showing traffic performance of recommended changes
• Desire for coastal access parking, especially during interim stages
Open Space Design
• Enthusiastic support for coastal trail south of Sloat Boulevard, and the improved
connection between open spaces
• Preference for ‘Scenario 2,’ the option emphasizing access and environmental
restoration over maximum parking south of Sloat
• Preference for natural materials in landscape design, including dark skies
• Support for bike parking
• Interest in temporary artwork, but not permanent installations
All your comments are valuable and much appreciated by the project teams. This feedback will help us refine our work in progress on the three Ocean Beach Implementation studies. Once again, thank you for your interest and active participation, and check back here for future project updates.
“This idea to plan for erosion events before they happen is a huge step forward - good job!”
“Remove the asphalt that is falling in the ocean.”
“Preserve Dark Skies!”
“Great! Would love to have connection to Fort Funston."
“NO MORE PARKING ON GREAT HIGHWAY…It is not necessary to further the goals of the OB Master Plan.”
“I like the consolidation of recreational activities to the safer side of the street near the Zoo.”
“Go for it - GO!!”
“This is a quiet village-like neighborhood, full of surfers, walkers, and joggers, many of whom know each other at least by face if not name. Parking areas and attendant services between Lincoln Way and Sloat (especially south of Noriega) will make this stretch a destination like Ocean Beach around Fulton.”
“The idea of the proposed roundabouts presents a masterful approach to solving the these chaotic intersections. Pure genius.”
SPUR is leading a transportation study at Ocean Beach to further develop the access and circulation recommendations of the Ocean Beach Master Plan. The transportation design team had proposed a new solution for Skyline Boulevard: a series of carefully designed "modern roundabouts." This proposal will improve safety and streetscape aesthetics while maintaining a constant flow of vehicle traffic at moderate speeds.
What is a modern roundabout?
Modern roundabouts allow for removing traffic signals from intersections. Vehicles slow down and yield, but do not necessarily stop, on entry. This keeps a steady and efficient traffic flow, saving time and fuel.
The modern roundabout. Photo courtesy .
The modern roundabout is a specific type of intersection and should not be confused with the rotary (a large circular highway interchange common in the Northeast) or the neighborhood traffic circle (a small circle used for traffic calming in residential areas).
The advantages of the modern roundabout
Research conducted by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety in partnership with the Federal Highway Administration shows that roundabouts perform better in terms of safety than conventional intersections, resulting in:
- 76 percent reduction in injury
- 90 percent reduction in fatal crashes
- 35 percent reduction in general collisions
Roundabouts substantially improve pedestrian safety, with 40 percent fewer pedestrian collisions than traditional intersections. These impressive reductions may be attributed to lower motor speeds, shorter pedestrian crossings and the considerable decrease in conflict points between vehicles as well as with pedestrians.
Roundabouts eliminate left turns across pedestrian crosswalks, right-angle crashes and head-on collisions. The striking safety benefits combined with increased time savings — up to 89 percent — and reduced greenhouse gas emissions have turned many roundabout skeptics into enthusiasts. Initial design and construction costs are also offset by low maintenance expenses when compared to intersections with signals. On top of that, the centers of roundabouts can support trees, vegetation and public art and perform stormwater management.
How popular is the modern roundabout?
Roundabouts were not very common in the American landscape, but they began increasing in number a few years ago. According to the Federal Highway Administration, approximately 150 to 250 roundabouts are built in the United States annually. From Delaware and Maryland to Utah and California roundabouts are used more and more as a traffic management tool.
San Francisco has only one modern roundabout, built very recently on Otis Street in Mission Bay. Roundabout skeptics argue that U.S. drivers’ unfamiliarity with roundabouts is going to increase confusion and create difficulties in adjusting their travel behavior to navigate them properly. Studies prove the opposite and, once constructed, roundabouts gain overwhelming public support.
Roundabouts are everywhere in the US from Delaware (top) to our own backyard in Mission Bay (bottom). Photo from Google maps.
Why would roundabouts be the best solution for Skyline?
Intersections on Skyline today are dangerous and at times impossible to cross on foot or bike. The roundabout design proposal is a more rational approach that clarifies these massive and complex intersections, in particular the one at Sloat Boulevard. A group of roundabouts work well in sequence, and they can offer a better transition from the fast, semi-rural Skyline Boulevard into shared city streets. A major benefit from these improvements is the connection of Lake Merced, Fort Funston and Ocean Beach in a safe and friendly way for cyclists and pedestrians.With good roundabout design, the appropriate public education and stakeholder support, the newly designed Skyline Boulevard can be an exemplary case of roundabout implementation and, who knows, could even be recognized by the British Roundabout Appreciation Society.
Recent data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) suggest that an El Niño phenomenon may develop in the Pacific Ocean this year. El Niño weather patterns — or properly El Niño Southern Oscillations — typically generate wetter and more frequent winter storms in California, with potential implications for erosion at Ocean Beach. What will these storms mean for the future of the beach, and for the recommendations in SPUR’s Ocean Beach Master Plan?
The El Niño pattern generally occurs every two to five years when surface temperatures rise in the central Pacific, driven by a reversal in the usually easterly trade winds. This results in greater precipitation in California — sometimes much greater, as in the winter of 1996-97, which saw more than 47 inches of rain in San Francisco and considerable erosion at Ocean Beach.
Since this spring, scientists have been warning that an El Niño — potentially a major one — looked likely. NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center has issued an “El Niño Watch.” From the standpoint of California’s record drought, many at first saw this as a ray of hope. But more recent estimates suggest a more modest El Niño, which may not be sufficient to increase rainfall in Northern California by much — but may still cause coastal erosion. Current estimates put the chances of an El Niño developing this winter at about 80 percent.
It’s been more than four years since a devastating series of winter storms caused severe erosion at the south end of Ocean Beach, in the winter of 2009-10. In some locations, bluffs receded 40 feet in a single season, threatening the Great Highway, coastal parking lots and underground sewer infrastructure. San Francisco responded by placing boulder revetments (embankments of stone riprap) on the beach, creating controversy among environmentalists, surfers and the California Coastal Commission. It wasn't the first time. The same pattern — an El Niño storm season, severe erosion and emergency coastal armoring — occurred in 1997.
In 2011, the Coastal Commission rejected a city permit application for both existing and additional armoring, demanding instead a long-term plan to address coastal hazards. SPUR was already at work on the Ocean Beach Master Plan, which took on a new urgency. Meanwhile, the city turned to softer, more adaptive measures, including the placement of sandbags and “backpassing” of large quantities of excess sand from the north end of Ocean Beach to the eroded sections at the south end.
The Ocean Beach Master Plan recommends closure of the Great Highway south of Sloat Boulevard for “managed retreat” (i.e., gradually removing manmade structures in the path of sea level rise) in the coming decades. The San Francisco Department of Public Works is planning to narrow the road to two lanes within a few years, and aggressive measures to prevent erosion are no longer the order of the day. SPUR and its consultants are working with the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) and the Coastal Commission on a package of softer measures, including additional sand placement, sand bags and the consolidation of existing rubble into a smaller, erosion-resistant footprint. These steps are intended to get the beach through several storm seasons without the need for additional structures like revetments or sea walls, while longer-term measures are developed to implement the master plan vision.
Will the softer measures be adequate if an El Niño season produces a series of powerful storms? It’s difficult to say with certainty, but there are several reasons to be optimistic.
First, the responsible agencies are focused on protecting critical wastewater infrastructure, rather than the roadway or parking lots, meaning there is a greater tolerance for letting nature take its course.
Second, the existing revetments, though controversial, are in place and effectively protecting what had been the most vulnerable areas. In addition, the sandbags that were placed in 2011 have held up very well, providing coastal protection that is easily reversible, inoffensive and easily expanded.
Lastly, the city is in a much more proactive stance, proposing measures in advance of anticipated storms and preparing to act quickly if threats develop. In particular, the SFPUC is preparing to implement additional preventive sand placement and to fill and stockpile sandbags in advance of winter storms, for rapid deployment.
There are, of course, no guarantees. If this year’s El Niño produces severe and repeated storm surges, the environmental risk of a ruptured sewer could reach an unacceptable level, requiring emergency armoring. But for the first time, all actors are working together to make armoring the action of last resort and to prepare a more adaptive approach.
Thanks to all of you who stopped by our Open House at the County Fair Building last Saturday (05/10) and chose to spend the sunny morning with the Ocean Beach project teams!
For those who didn’t make it or want to refresh your memory, you can view the presentation boards below. The boards present information on the three different Ocean Beach implementation studies currently in progress, as well as a summary of the Ocean Beach Master Plan process and its Key Moves.
You can also view the animated video prepared by AECOM for the Open House, which displays the sequence of actions and coastal management measures at the South reach of Ocean Beach:
We received a lot of valuable comments and ideas from all of you who attended the Open House and we will post all of them online in the coming weeks. In case you weren’t able to attend our Open House and want to provide your feedback you can use the comment form from the Open House. You may either print it and mail it to us here at SPUR (654 Mission Street), or you can simply write your comments in an email to email@example.com until May 23rd.
Once again thank you all for your interest and participation!
One of the ways to capture public feedback during the Open House was through post-it notes on the presentation boards. Image by Patricia Fonseca (AECOM).
What: Open House on Ocean Beach Master Plan Implementation Projects
When: Saturday May 10, 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. (drop in for brief presentations noted below)
Where: County Fair Building in Golden Gate Park (near Lincoln Way and 9th Ave) map
Join SPUR, partner agencies, community leaders and consultant teams for an update on projects to implement the recommendations in the 2012 Ocean Beach Master Plan. The plan was developed through a two-year public and interagency process. It presents a series of recommendations to improve coastal access, restore ecological function, and protect critical infrastructure in the face of chronic erosion and sea level rise.
This open house will provide updates on three projects currently underway to carry those recommendations forward. The project teams will be on hand to discuss their work in progress and get your ideas and feedback. Stop by any time from 9am-12pm. Brief optional presentations will provide some background on each project.
1) Coastal Management Framework (9:30 am)
2) Transportation Study (10:30 am)
3) Open Space Design Study (11:30 am)
Each of these will result in proposed projects that are ready for environmental review, permitting, and implementation on the ground over a period of several decades. New trails, a cleaner beach, restored dunes and bluffs, and safer roadways are all being explored, all while protecting public investments in clean coastal waters.
As sea levels rise, big changes are inevitable, but we can work with the changes to make better places for everyone. This award-winning effort is on the cutting edge of adaptive coastal planning.
SPUR, along with agency partners and design consultants from AECOM, has begun work on an Open Space Design for recreational and landscape improvements on Ocean Beach and surrounding streets and trails. Initial efforts will focus on the parking area and bluffs south of Sloat Boulevard. The Open Space Design is an adaptive plan that follows the natural progression of the beach and bluffs. With different parts of the beach eroding at varying speeds, the design team is exploring creative ways to adapt to coastal changes. The design is driven by the guiding principle of managed retreat on the South part of the Great Highway that will allow for dune and bluff restoration as recommended by the OBMP. Near-term open space and access improvements will become possible thanks to the Department of Public Works (DPW) plans for narrowing the Great Highway and to funding granted from Coastal Conservancy. These changes will make Ocean Beach a much better public space for all to enjoy.
The immediate coastal protection plan that covers the next three storm seasons will offer some exciting landscape opportunities in the very near future, with improvements to access and beach aesthetics. The transient nature of the landscape poses many design challenges but also creates opportunities to celebrate this temporary environment, for instance through public art elements. The interim reconfiguration of the Great Highway South of Sloat creates recreational opportunities, which could include a temporary pedestrian and bike trail, in the vacated southbound lanes and parking areas. It also allows for the removal of excess asphalt, beach cleanup and re-vegetation. Brushwood and other natural materials will minimize effects of windblown sand and greatly improve beach aesthetics while channeling pedestrian access in a way that won’t compromise the beach.
The interim Open Space Design will be a precursor of the long-term vision. A network of interconnected pedestrian and bike trails will link Ocean Beach smoothly to Fort Funston, San Francisco Zoo, Lake Merced and Golden Gate Park, as well as the existing dune and Lower Great Highway trails. The Fleischhacker Pool House site emerges as a great connection point between the Zoo and the coast, with opportunities to engage the Zoo’s conservation mission. Parking areas will be re-organized to improve experience for beach goers while maintaining good coastal access. Green infrastructure opportunities in the new parking areas and along the site’s thoroughfares will beautify the streetscape while retaining and infiltrating stormwater. The intersections of Great Highway/Sloat and Sloat/Skyline have been identified as key important gateways to the improved landscape, and could include elements like interpretive signage and bike parking. New locations will be determined to host amenities like restrooms, seating, and scenic overlooks.
The Open Space Design study enables further collaborations between the different OBMP partner agencies for joint management of the open space areas and facilities. These include the GGNRA, SF Department of Public Works, SF Recreation and Park Department, and SF Public Utilities Commission. Beach users and community members are invited to help the team develop design and programming ideas during our Open House on May, 10th.
What is the Coastal Management Framework?
SPUR, our coastal engineering consulting team and partner agencies are working together to develop a Coastal Management Framework (CMF). This implementation study, funded by San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, will define a series of projects to protect Ocean Beach and threatened infrastructure from the dual pressures of extreme weather events and sea level rise in an adaptive and responsive manner. Based on the Ocean Beach Master Plan (OBMP) recommendations, it will delineate coastal protection action plans for three different time spans: an immediate-term (1-3 years), an interim (3-10 years) and a long-term (10-40 years).
Immediate - Term Coastal Erosion Management Plan
While the long-term strategies of the CMF are developed, Ocean Beach still faces the potential threat of a severe storm that could exacerbate current erosion issues, particularly at the “hot spot” at the south end of South Ocean Beach. The Immediate-Term Management plan covers the first three storm seasons and identifies a package of softer coastal management tools that have proven successful in recent efforts to address erosion. Proposed interventions include the combination of sand placement between the high tide line and the eroding beach bluffs with sandbag structures that can be filled in advance nearby and deployed rapidly. Another measure under consideration is to consolidate concrete rubble that is currently on the beach into an erosion-resistant slope, protecting the bluff toe and getting it off the beach. These recommendations can be implemented incrementally, are reversible in nature, have limited environmental impact and serve multiple objectives, consistent with the OBMP.
Ocean Beach Wind Blown Sand Management
The 2012 Sand Backpassing Project proved to be an effective measure against erosion and a successful interagency partnership. However, it came with some unintended consequences. Dr. Peter Baye and coastal engineers from ESA PWA and Moffatt & Nichol Engineers have identified a series of sand stabilizing techniques to address the issue of wind-blown sand that is transported onto the bluff-top parking and roadways. These measures can help SPUR, the National Park Service and the City and County of San Francisco in implementing future beach nourishment projects. Driftwood jams and placement of shell fragments or coarser sands can trap the sand in place and limit its transfer while blending harmoniously within the beach environment. Together with information signs, they can also direct beachgoers toward limited access points.These practices minimize recreational and aesthetic nuisances and maintain public beach access. Demonstration projects of windblown sand management techniques will be developed and incorporated into future sand placement projects.
Vulnerability Analysis and Coastal Engineering Feasibility Study
The consulting team is also developing a vulnerability and coastal engineering feasibility study to determine the most appropriate long-term strategies and actions for Ocean Beach. The vulnerability assessment indicates limited vulnerability in the immediate term but widespread vulnerability in coming decades. New findings support the OBMP vision of replacing current revetments with a low profile structure combined with managed retreat and realignment. Various structural alternatives that can provide bluff support and adequate protection to the critical infrastructure of Lake Merced Tunnel (LMT) are possible. Options like a jet grout or secant pile structure show particular promise since they can be implemented from the top without disrupting the bluff. These measures can allow for bluff restoration, beach cleanup, improved access, and various recreational opportunities. The team will perform additional modelling and collect supplementary geotechnical information to develop a better understanding of the effect of the changing coastline on the LMT.
As regulatory and permitting approvals for the Immediate-Term Management Plan are pending, the proposed approaches will be presented to the public to gather feedback at an open house on May 10th. Fostering interagency collaboration is a pivotal element for enabling the coastal management projects. There is a great opportunity of coordinating the different beach monitoring efforts between the partner agencies. The final goal of the CMF is to create a report that will set the stage for an agreement between SFPUC, Army Corps of Engineers and Golden Gate National Recreation Area on a Coastal Protection Strategy until 2050. This agreement will also describe the steps needed for funding, environmental review and permitting processes to streamline future projects.
When you think of a city’s circulation system, you might marvel at its network of streets, rail tracks and public transportation but another essential system lies underground – largely hidden and unremarked. The city’s network of storm drains, culverts and sewer pipes is essential to public health and environmental quality. Recently these two worlds collided when the Muni buses and trains became vehicles for San Francisco’s Public Utilities Commission advertisements, giving this hardworking system some well-deserved visibility around the city. This creative ad campaign certainly made me curious about how San Francisco’s wastewater system functions, and soon afterwards I found myself taking a tour of one of its vital components: the Oceanside Water Pollution Control Plant. It was a fascinating experience shedding light on the inner workings of this impressive facility that provides an incredibly valuable service to the city’s residents while preserving the ocean’s water quality.
The Oceanside Water Pollution Control Plant
San Francisco is served by three wastewater treatment facilities: North Point near Fisherman’s Wharf, Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant in Bayview Hunter’s Point and Oceanside Water Pollution Control Plant near Ocean Beach. Oceanside is the newest facility of the three, built in 1993 as a result of the Federal Clean Water Act upgrade. It replaced the old Richmond Sunset Water Pollution Control Plant from 1935 that was situated in Golden Gate Park. Adjacent to the San Francisco Zoo, this modern plant is engineered for a future Zoo expansion over its roof, able to withstand 300 pounds per square foot as a future Mammal Center. The plant’s facilities are designed to be largely out of sight from the adjacent recreational areas with 70% of its 12 acres located underground, mainly for odor and noise purposes. Its state of the art HVAC system and sophisticated odor control units limit impacts on nearby neighborhoods.
The Oceanside Treatment Plant is specially engineered for coming earthqaukes as well as a future Zoo expansion over its roof. Image by Maria Bakali.
How the system works
San Francisco is the only major city on the California coast with a city-wide combined sewer system. The wastewater load fluctuates depending on weather conditions. In dry weather sewage travels through a network of pipes to the Westside Transport Box, a rectangular tube under the Great Highway between Lincoln and Sloat Boulevards. From there it flows to the Westside pump station at Sloat Boulevard, where it is pumped to the Oceanside Water Pollution Control Plant for treatment. The secondary-treated effluent is discharged 4.5 miles out to the ocean through the 80 feet deep Southwest Ocean Outfall. When the plant’s capacity is overwhelmed in extreme wet weather conditions, the transport box and the Lake Merced Tunnel fill up and retain the combined flow. Overflow there is decanted through a second chamber in the Westside Transport box and a second set of pumps transport the decanted flow to the deep ocean outfall. Only when that system’s capacity is exceeded do combined discharges occur, through seven outfall structures, three on Ocean Beach, one at Mile Rock and three near the northern beaches of China and Baker beaches.
The 200 tons of biosolids produced daily as remainders of wastewater’s secondary treatment are regionally transported for agricultural land application purposes or for landfill beneficial reuse. In addition the methane produced in the plant’s digesters is used to power the plant, covering 30% of its electrical needs. Most of the system’s functions are automated (60%), with the plant’s engineers, chemists and marine biologists monitoring the plant’s good operation and the quality of the ocean’s environment and ecosystems respectively.
Why is this facility important
The Oceanside Water Pollution Control Plant is a very efficient system, serving the city’s Westside neighborhoods and watersheds while treating 20% of the city’s average annual wastewater flows. It is an award winning facility whose prizes include the 2003 Large Plant of the Year Award and the 2004 US Environmental Protection Agency National Clean Water Act Recognition Award for Operations and Maintenance Excellence. This expensive piece of infrastructure is at the early stages of its operating cycle and maintaining its good performance and operation for the rest of this cycle is vital.
There are, however, some significant challenges in doing so. The main threat to the facility is coastal erosion that could damage the Lake Merced Tunel underneath the Great Highway. With the sea level rise posing an imminent hazard, future erosion issues most likely will worsen if no comprehensive coastal management is set in place. Another question is how the current infrastructure can deal with the future combined sewer loads. To relieve some stress put on the system during extreme weather events, Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is moving forward with projects that combine grey and green infrastructure and integrate innovative stormwater management solutions of Low Impact Development (LID).
OBMP and the Oceanside Water Pollution Control Plant
One of the major goals of the Ocean Beach Master Plan is to protect in place the Oceanside system components for the next decades. According to the OBMP vision a combination of managed retreat, beach nourishment and low profile structural protection will substitute current revetments providing a more environmentally sensitive and aesthetically preferable solution. These measures will also allow for improved recreational and ecological opportunities along the beach and the surrounding area, benefiting residents and visitors alike. The PUC is working very closely with SPUR, the coastal engineering team and other partner agencies on developing a Coastal Management Framework, that will delineate coastal protection strategies until 2050. For more updates on developments on Ocean Beach join SPUR’s new public outreach efforts this May. Stay connected with us through Twitter, Facebook and our Blog!
Want to know more about the Oceanside Treatment Plant? Sign up for a free tour organized by San Francisco Public Utilities Commission.
Future flickers for Ocean Beach bonfires SF Bay News 02/9/2015
California braces for "storm of the decade" CBS News, 12/9/2014
Why S.F. is moving 42,000 tons of sand down Ocean Beach SF Gate, 12/5/2014
San Francisco, Sonoma recognized by White House for Climate Action SF Gate, 12/3/2014
White House checks out S.F.'s plan to Save Ocean Beach SF Chronicle, 6/20/14
San Franciscans in the Dark about Flood Hazards Climate Central, 06/20/14
SPUR's Plans for Ocean Beach Get Refined and Rendered Curbed, 06/06/14
Taking Action on Sea Level Rise SPUR, 04/10/14
San Francisco plans expensive ‘managed retreat’ from rising seas Grist, 02/04/13
Ocean Beach Master Plan Envisions Big Changes SF Public Press, 02/04/13
San Francisco a Test Case for Coping with Rising Seas KQED, 02/01/13
New plan crafted to limit Ocean Beach erosion SF Chronicle, 11/02/12
Ocean Beach sand management project wraps up ABC Local News, 09/20/12
Sand Mangement Project to partly close Great Highway OB Bulletin, 08/19/12
Great Highway lane work delayed SF Chronicle, 08/09/12
Mayor Lee Celebrates SPUR Ocean Beach Master Plan SF Mayor’s Office, 07/26/12
Turning the Tide at Ocean Beach KQED News, 07/26/12
Shifting sand to be transported elsewhere in San Francisco SF Examiner, 07/23/12
Ocean Beach sand plan could help curb erosion south of Sloat OB Bulletin 07/20/12
Ocean Beach master plan maps $300M project SF Business Journal, 06/22/12
Stay or go? Communities are eyeing a retreat from sea NBC News, 06/02/12
San Francisco's Coast and the Rising Sea KQED, 04/10/12
San Francisco's Battle With Mother Nature Planetizen, 03/28/12
Coastal Erosion in SF Prompts Planning and Debate KQED, 03/26/12
Both Coasts Watch Closely as SF Faces Erosion The New York Times, 03/24/12
Makeover could mean changes on Great Highway SF Examiner, 11/12/11
OBMP Envisions Big Changes for Great Highway KQED, 11/07/11
Erosion expected to strip economic value of Ocean Beach OB Bulletin, 09/13/11
Erosion problems threaten the future of Ocean Beach ABC Local News, 09/05/11
State panel rejects city's repairs to Ocean Beach SF Chronicle, 07/15/11
Violent Pacific storms of 2010 worst on record SF Chronicle, 07/14/11
Public urged to help decide fixes for Ocean Beach erosion Sunset Beacon, 02/01/11
Forces of Nature are Working to Destroy Ocean Beach The Bay Citizen, 01/25/11
On the Brink of an Ocean Beach Master Plan OB Bulletin, 09/21/10
Is It Worth It to Save Oceanfront Development? The New York Times, 09/13/10
Experts Call for Long-Term Fix for Beach Erosion Sunset Beacon, 11/01/10
Ocean Beach due for an overhaul SF Examiner, 07/08/08
The Impacts of Sea-Level Rise on the California Coast Pacific Institute
Coastal Regional Sediment Management Project USACE, CA Resources Agency
Our Coast Our Future (OCOF) GFNMS, PRBO, USGS
Western Shoreline Plan (Local Coastal Program) SF Planning
Ocean Beach Task Force Summary (2005) Ocean Beach Task Force
South Ocean Beach - Shore Management Discussion Bob Battalio, PE